Dealing With Crime -  Five stages of violent crime (521 views) Notify me whenever anyone posts in this discussion.Subscribe
 
From: EdGlaze DelphiPlus Member Icon Posted by host12/20/09 9:55 PM 
To: All  (1 of 14) 
 64.1 

From this informative site: http://www.nononsenseselfdefense.com

Five Stages of Violent Crime

While we strongly advocate awareness and avoidance as a primary means for personal safety sometimes that isn't enough. The Five Stages of Violent Crime has been tested in court as an easily explainable standard by which individuals determined if they were legally justified to use self defense tactics. Remember, when it comes to violence there are usually legal repercussions. Therefore we strongly advocate you know when you are justified to use force.

The Five Stages of Violent Crime:
Crime and violence are processes that take time to develop. The attack is not the first step, the preliminary triangle must be built. There are five distinct stages that are easily identified:

1 Intent
2 Interview
3 Positioning
4 Attack
5 Reaction

During the first three stages, you can prevent an attack without the use of violence. These are where the criminal (or violent person) decides whether or not he can get away with it. He may want to (Intent), but if he doesn't have the opportunity (Positioning) he cannot succeed. The Interview is his way to double check if you are safe for him to attack. If these conditions are not met, he will not attack!

What we are about to say is not hyperbole. Selecting a safe victim is a matter of life or death for the criminal. If he picks the wrong target, he's the one who is going to die. Therefore, he's going to make sure he can successfully use violence against you (Interview and Positioning) before he commits himself to act. Once he is sure of his ability to succeed — and has put you in a position where he can quickly overwhelm you — he will attack.

AOI (Short-hand version)
What follows is a parallel system to the Five Stages of Violent Crime. AOI stands for Ability, Opportunity and Intent. Although not as complete as the Five Stages, it will give you a quick-rule-of-thumb set of standards to determine whether or not you are in danger. While the Five Stages is more complete, for people who are not particularly interested in self-defense, AOI is a nice set of fast and easy guidelines. We present both models for you to select which works best for you.

Take away any one of these elements and the triangle collapses. In other words, the crime does not have what it needs to occur.

     Ability: Does the person have the ability to attack you? Could this person successfully assault you, whether through physical prowess, a weapon or numerical superiority? Many women underestimate male upper-body strength and how vulnerable they are to being physically overwhelmed.

      Opportunity: Does this person have the opportunity to attack you? Are you alone with him or even in an area beyond immediate help? Could anyone come to your assistance within twenty seconds or less? As many victims have found, you can be robbed in plain view or raped with people in the next room.

     Intent: Is he in a mental place where using violence to get what he wants makes sense to him?


 
 Reply   Options 

 
From: EdGlaze DelphiPlus Member Icon Posted by host12/20/09 9:56 PM 
To: All  (2 of 14) 
 64.2 in reply to 64.1 

Of the three, intent is the most nebulous, yet it is vital for determining who is a threat. It is the literally the difference between going off with someone to talk and being raped. Skip over to Intent page and to the profile of a rapist. Acquainting yourself with the criminal mindset is also highly recommended.

The fastest way to figure out if you are in potential danger is to look for these three elements. If you see one, look for the others. If you see two out of three stop whatever else you are doing and pay close attention for a moment. If you see him trying to develop the third, withdraw from the situation to a safer area. This is easier than using physical violence. As you will soon see, opportunity often means staying in an area where someone could effectively use physical violence against you. If you do not see these elements then odds are you are safe. There is no triangle.

If you wish to adhere to a more legally sanctioned idea, you can exchange the I of Intent for a K of Known (for known dangerous behavior = jeopardy). This turns it into the acronym A-OK. Which might be easier for someone to remember.

Conclusion
Knowing the five stages is a standardized guide by which you can assess the potential threat of a situation. These five stages are inherent within crime and violence. What is important to realize is that the first three stages might not occur in that particular order. A violent and selfish person may suddenly find himself with the perfect opportunity/ability to commit a rape, and suddenly the intent appears. There was no conscious initial decision, but the circumstances developed. Due to an intrinsic flaw in his personality, he can decide to act in a violent manner. This is why you always need to check for ability, opportunity and intent (AOI).

As stated the Pyramid of Personal Safety was developed to counter the Five Stages. As the criminal must develop these stages in order to successfully attack you, the pyramid undermines his attempts. By foiling him instead attempting to contest him, you can avoid using violence in all but the most extreme circumstances.

Two major problems exist regarding self-defense. The first is knowing when to use it. How do we know when is the right time? How can we be sure we are not overreacting or starting at shadows? We should all have reservations about using force. Much of this confusion is alleviated by having a proven and external set of standards to compare a situation against. If you don't see the triangle, it is not the time to use violence.

The other problem with self-defense is the legal ramifications. In many states, you risk being prosecuted for "attempted self-defense," both on a criminal and civil front. What was an obvious threat at the time can be later undermined in court by an attorney. When the DA asks how you knew you were in immediate danger you had better have a better answer than "he looked at me mean."

If you end up in court to defend your defending yourself, either system will help you clarify and rationally explain why you thought your actions were warranted.

_____

Also see: FAQs About Personal Safety

 

 
From: EdGlaze DelphiPlus Member Icon Posted by host12/20/09 10:13 PM 
To: All  (3 of 14) 
 64.3 in reply to 64.2 

Indicators of Violent Behavior 
EMR-ISAC InfoGram 45-09 Nov 12, 2009

As reported by multiple national media sources, the United States has experienced a recent increase in active shooters and violence in the workplace. The Emergency Management and Response—Information Sharing and Analysis Center (EMR-ISAC) observed that these incidents have been as dangerous to emergency responders as they have to innocent bystanders. Because of the obvious risks to personnel from Emergency Services Sector departments and agencies, the EMR-ISAC examined the some early warning indicators of violent behavior in the workplace, prepared by the FBI’s National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime and summarized as follows:

  • Expressing direct or veiled threats of harm.
  • Engaging in intimidating, belligerent, harassing, bullying, or other aggressive behaviors.
  • Experiencing numerous conflicts with supervisors and other employees.
  • Bringing a weapon and/or brandishing a weapon in the workplace.
  • Making inappropriate references to guns or a fascination with weapons.
  • Showing blatant interest with incidents of workplace violence.
  • Indicating approval of the use of violence to solve problems.
  • Identifying with the perpetrators of workplace homicides.
  • Demonstrating desperation over professional or personal problems.
  • Articulating thoughts about the possibility of suicide.
  • Exhibiting extreme changes in attitude and/or behavior.
  • Displaying drug and/or alcohol abuse, particularly where abuse did not previously exist.

The FBI explains that each of these indicators could be a clear sign that something is wrong.  They caution that none should be ignored. The Bureau further asserts: “By identifying the problem and dealing with it appropriately, managers and coworkers may be able to prevent violence from happening.” 

The EMR-ISAC provides the following hyperlinks for additional information about active shooters and violence in the workplace: 

Workplace Violence — Issues in Response (PDF, 6 Mb)

Active Shooter: How to Respond (PDF, 927 Kb)

 
 

 
From: EdGlaze DelphiPlus Member Icon Posted by host12/25/09 12:58 PM 
To: All  (4 of 14) 
 64.4 in reply to 64.1 

There is a big difference between self-defense and personal safety. Self defense is predicated on the fact that you are in a very bad place to begin with. Things have already gone to hell in a hand basket. As such, self defense is making sure the situation doesn't get any worse — it is damage control, pure and simple. However, no damage control is EVER as good as preventing the problem in the first place. That's personal safety...
~~Marc MacYoung

Five Stages of Violent Crime
by Marc MacYoung


The Five Stages of Violent Crime is an internationally recognized system to identify
if — and determine when and if — you are being set up for a crime or violence. The information contained on this page is from DVD/video, Street Safe: How to Recognize and Avoid Violent Crime. It is used by police, military and firearms instructors around the world as a training and teaching tool. Also the system is taught internationally in self defense and crime prevention courses(1).

While we strongly advocate awareness and avoidance as a primary means for personal safety sometimes that isn't enough. The Five Stages of Violent Crime has been tested in court as an easily explainable standard by which individuals determined if they were legally justified to use self defense tactics. Remember, when it comes to violence there are usually legal repercussions. Therefore we strongly advocate you know when you are justified to use force.

The Five Stages of Violent Crime:
Crime and violence are processes that take time to develop. The attack is not the first step, the preliminary triangle must be built. There are five distinct stages that are easily identified:

1.  Intent
2.  Interview
3.  Positioning
4.  Attack
5.  Reaction

During the first three stages, you can prevent an attack without the use of violence. These are where the criminal (or violent person) decides whether or not he can get away with it. He may want to (Intent), but if he doesn't have the opportunity (Positioning) he cannot succeed. The Interview is his way to double check if you are safe for him to attack. If these conditions are not met, he will not attack!

What we are about to say is not hyperbole. Selecting a safe victim is a matter of life or death for the criminal. If he picks the wrong target, he's the one who is going to die. Therefore, he's going to make sure he can successfully use violence against you (Interview and Positioning) before he commits himself to act. Once he is sure of his ability to succeed — and has put you in a position where he can quickly overwhelm you — he will attack.

 

 
From: EdGlaze DelphiPlus Member Icon Posted by host12/25/09 12:59 PM 
To: All  (5 of 14) 
 64.5 in reply to 64.4 
2811.2 in reply to 2811.1 

Below is a shorthand version of the five stages. Each is linked to a more in-depth look at the subject:

Intent
This is where the person crosses a normal mental boundary. From this point, the person is mentally and physically prepared to commit violence in order to get what he wants — whatever that may be. Being able to recognize when intent is present is one of the key components of your personal safety. yet, this isn't always easy as you might think. The criminal has often learned how to mask it behind words and feigned innocence. But once you know how to spot the physiological signs, it is easily recognizable. Learn more about intent.

Interview
With all violence, the assailant's safety is a critical factor in deciding whether or not to attack. While in interpersonal violence, the deciding factor may be anger, strong emotion or pride. However, with criminal violence it is more of a conscious decision. This leads us to the interview, where the criminal decides upon your suitability as a victim. There are several kinds of interviews common to criminal attacks

Positioning
This is the criminal putting himself in a place where he can successfully attack you. A criminal (or even a violent person) doesn't want to fight you; he wants to overwhelm you. To do this, he has to put himself in a position where he can do it quickly and effectively. An attempt to develop positioning is the final proof of ill intent. Someone trying to position himself to attack removes all doubt that the situation is innocent. Like the Interview, there are several kinds of Positioning.

Attack
The attack is the when the criminal/violent person commits himself to using force — or the threat of force — to get what he wants. Like the other stages there are important distinctions to be made about the kind of attack you will face.

Reaction
Reaction is how the criminal feels about what he has done. However, this is made more complicated by the fact that your reaction is an important contributing factor.



AOI (Short-hand version)
What follows is a parallel system to the Five Stages of Violent Crime. AOI stands for Ability, Opportunity and Intent. Although not as complete as the Five Stages, it will give you a quick-rule-of-thumb set of standards to determine whether or not you are in danger. While the Five Stages is more complete, for people who are not particularly interested in self-defense, AOI is a nice set of fast and easy guidelines. We present both models for you to select which works best for you.

There is a concept called the triangle among firefighters. Along each side is an element that a fire needs in order to burn. If you take away one of these elements, the triangle collapses and the fire goes out. Crime is the same: In order for it to occur, there must be three basic elements

This is easily remembered as A.O.I. (Ability, Opportunity and Intent). Take away any one of these elements and the triangle collapses. In other words, the crime does not have what it needs to occur.

Ability: Does the person have the ability to attack you? Could this person successfully assault you, whether through physical prowess, a weapon or numerical superiority? Many women underestimate male upper-body strength and how vulnerable they are to being physically overwhelmed.

Opportunity: Does this person have the opportunity to attack you? Are you alone with him or even in an area beyond immediate help? Could anyone come to your assistance within twenty seconds or less? As many victims have found, you can be robbed in plain view or raped with people in the next room.

Intent: Is he in a mental place where using violence to get what he wants makes sense to him?

Of the three, intent is the most nebulous, yet it is vital for determining who is a threat. It is the literally the difference between going off with someone to talk and being raped. Skip over to Intent page and to the profile of a rapist. Acquainting yourself with the criminal mindset is also highly recommended.

 

 
From: EdGlaze DelphiPlus Member Icon Posted by host12/25/09 12:59 PM 
To: All  (6 of 14) 
 64.6 in reply to 64.5 

The fastest way to figure out if you are in potential danger is to look for these three elements. If you see one, look for the others. If you see two out of three stop whatever else you are doing and pay close attention for a moment. If you see him trying to develop the third, withdraw from the situation to a safer area. This is easier than using physical violence. As you will soon see, opportunity often means staying in an area where someone could effectively use physical violence against you. If you do not see these elements then odds are you are safe. There is no triangle.

If you wish to adhere to a more legally sanctioned idea, you can exchange the I of Intent for a K of Known (for known dangerous behavior = jeopardy). This turns it into the acronym A-OK. Which might be easier for someone to remember.

Conclusion
Knowing the five stages is a standardized guide by which you can assess the potential threat of a situation. These five stages are inherent within crime and violence. What is important to realize is that the first three stages might not occur in that particular order. A violent and selfish person may suddenly find himself with the perfect opportunity/ability to commit a rape, and suddenly the intent appears. There was no conscious initial decision, but the circumstances developed. Due to an intrinsic flaw in his personality, he can decide to act in a violent manner. This is why you always need to check for ability, opportunity and intent (AOI).

As stated the Pyramid of Personal Safety was developed to counter the Five Stages. As the criminal must develop these stages in order to successfully attack you, the pyramid undermines his attempts. By foiling him instead attempting to contest him, you can avoid using violence in all but the most extreme circumstances.

Two major problems exist regarding self-defense. The first is knowing when to use it. How do we know when is the right time? How can we be sure we are not overreacting or starting at shadows? We should all have reservations about using force. Much of this confusion is alleviated by having a proven and external set of standards to compare a situation against. If you don't see the triangle, it is not the time to use violence.

The other problem with self-defense is the legal ramifications. In many states, you risk being prosecuted for "attempted self-defense," both on a criminal and civil front. What was an obvious threat at the time can be later undermined in court by an attorney. When the DA asks how you knew you were in immediate danger you had better have a better answer than "he looked at me mean."

If you end up in court to defend your defending yourself, either system will help you clarify and rationally explain why you thought your actions were warranted.

________

Street Safe: How to Avoid Becoming a Victim
(Paladin Press, 1993/LOTI, 2007) color, approximately 50 minutes,
ISBN 1-87364-758-0
DVD, Item# DsafeDVD
DVD --$22    Retail: $24

Order Now!

 

 
From: EdGlaze DelphiPlus Member Icon Posted by host5/16/10 10:45 AM 
To: All  (7 of 14) 
 64.7 in reply to 64.6 

Crossposted from: Keys to personal safety 
(see that discussion for more information)

______

Pyramid of Personal Safety

There is no reason to live in fear of crime and violence. There is however reason to take reasonable precautions. And in doing so, you will have deterred most criminals from choosing you as their victim.

The reason is simple, there are thousands of people around who are easier and safer targets. The harder you make it for the criminal to victimize you, the more likely he is to go ply his trade elsewhere. You won't have stopped the criminal from being a criminal, but you will have stopped him from choosing you as a victim.

With this in mind, personal safety can be viewed as a pyramid. Each level not only increases your safety, but builds upon the level under it to create a cohesive and consistent whole. This way you have a solid structure, rather than a patchwork of "do this for this situation and that for another" answers for personal safety. Such a fragmented approach requires excessive work, inconvenience and, often, drastically altering your lifestyle. What's worse is it still leaves opportunities and openings for you to be attacked. This pyramid is designed to work with your lifestyle, not change it.

Photobucket

Start from the bottom and work your way up. Each level takes you higher and keeps you safer. It does this by creating a consistent network that works simultaneously on several fronts. What will stop a burglar will also foil a stalker or a break-in rapist. What works to stop a mugger will also foil a serial rapist or carjacker. This consistency closes the gaps left by a fragmented approach — gaps that crime and violence come through to enter your life.

While it might seem like a great deal of work, this system is, in fact, simple and easy. Once it is in place, it requires no more than a minute from your daily routine to ensure your personal safety. And we do mean a minute. And not all at once either. Just five seconds segments, that collectively add up to no more than a minute a day. In addition, while the pyramid works better when all levels are involved, just using the first four levels will serve to keep you safe from a majority of crime.

The foundation that the pyramid stands upon is knowledge and understanding. This means knowing how the criminal and violent people think and what they need to succeed. These aren't good people gone bad, they're bad people gone worse. You also need to understand what provokes violence, what violence really is and that it comes in many different levels. Without this fundamental understanding, there can be no cohesiveness in what you do to protect yourself (and your property).

 

 
From: EdGlaze DelphiPlus Member Icon Posted by host11/13/12 8:29 PM 
To: All  (8 of 14) 
 64.8 in reply to 64.7 
  • Edited September 23, 2016 11:30 am  by  EdGlaze
 

 
From: EdGlaze DelphiPlus Member Icon Posted by host9/23/16 11:02 AM 
To: All  (9 of 14) 
 64.9 in reply to 64.8 

Crossposted from: Intuition on the street

Pre-Attack Indicators

 

 

Also see:

Spotting a Concealed Handgun

  • Edited September 23, 2016 11:39 am  by  EdGlaze
 

 
From: EdGlaze DelphiPlus Member Icon Posted by host2/11/17 1:27 AM 
To: All  (10 of 14) 
 64.10 in reply to 64.9 

photo 9-signs-that-someone-is-about-to-attack_zpscsinrvck.jpg

 

 

9 Signs That Someone Is About To Attack You
by ALAN
 

Being able to detect threats is imperative, especially during a major disaster. Whether you’re defending your family after a disaster or simply trying to feel safe going to the gas station at night, you need to be able to identify people with hostile intentions.

While your brain can sometimes be tricked into judging someone as a threat who is harmless (i.e. a ragged-looking person in a corner or someone with sinister-looking features), typically those split-second judgments are more or less correct. The subconscious part of the human brain is very good at recognizing threats, and has been for millennia. Honing those recognition skills will help you navigate tricky situations in a dangerous world.

Here are 9 threatening signs to look for.

1. Eye Contact

Eye contact is one of the biggest indicators of someone’s intentions. Unless they’re very shy, peaceful people will make normal eye contact. They will look you in the eye — but not too intently — and freely glance at an object you point to during a discussion. Someone who intends to harm you may look at you in one of two ways, and it will feel very different from regular eye contact.

The first eye contact red flag you should notice is if someone seems to be looking through you instead of at you, like he or she is staring at an object in the distance. This indicates the person is about to make a move, either in fight or flight (and to be safe, always assume the person will fight). A lack of response often accompanies this eye contact since the person is focused on their next move more than in holding a conversation.

The second eye contact red flag you should notice is if someone seems to be staring intently at you. This can be an act of aggression or posturing, displaying a challenge to fight. Anyone staring intently at you without ever breaking eye contact should be treated as a threat. They have shut off their peripheral senses and are completely focused on you, which is not a good sign.

Also be aware of someone breaking eye contact with quick, darting glances. This is usually a sign that this person is either targeting an escape route (and again, assume he or she will fight before they run away) or targeting a part of your body to strike. This is also an indication of nervousness, and if something escalates that person’s stress level, he or she may snap.

2. Stance

Observing how people stand and carry themselves is also an easy-to-spot sign of their intentions. In typical, nonthreatening conversation, most people stand squarely facing each other, their feet even with their shoulders. This is a neutral position.

Someone who is ready to attack you typically will have his or her feet set in an aggressive stance, with one foot back and the other foot forward, typically at a 45 degree angle. This position places an attacker’s strong side back to prepare for a strike or quick motion. This is called a front stance, strong stance, blading, a boxer’s stance, or a weaver stance. Also, keep in mind that an attacker will often move back the part of their body concealing a weapon.

3. Hands

A person’s arms and hands can be another clear indication of whether they’re threatening or not. Relaxed people tend to have their arms by their sides, and assuming the power grid stays on, they may have one or both hands clutching a smartphone.

People who are tense or nervous, however, may have their arms crossed or shoved in their pockets, even when they’re walking. In addition, open hands tend to send a peaceful signal, while clenched hands (or clenching and unclenching) tend to telegraph violent intentions. Someone intending harm may also be concealing a weapon in his or her hands, hiding them from view in an unnatural way that can be easy to spot.

4. Mouth

A person’s mouth — and any facial expression for that matter — often moves to mirror that person’s feelings. This usually happens unbeknownst to the person, but it can be a huge advantage to anyone paying attention. When people become angry and begin losing control of their emotions, this is usually reflected in a snarl or a clenched jaw. You can spot this warning sign a mile off and prepare to deescalate the situation, fight, or run away.

5. Pupil Dilation

Master manipulators and experienced people of violence can sometimes get to the point where they don’t telegraph their emotions and intentions on their faces, but even the best concealers can’t hide involuntary muscle movements like pupil dilation. When someone is in a stimulating situation, their body’s sympathetic nervous system reacts by dilating the pupils to receive the maximum amount of information possible. If someone’s pupils are dilated in broad daylight, this could be an indication they are about to snap into action.

In addition, pupil dilation is an evident symptom of drug usage, and while it may not be fair to assume all drug users are about to cause you harm, it may shed some light onto your situation.

 

  • Edited February 11, 2017 1:27 am  by  EdGlaze
 

 
Navigate this discussion: 1-10 11-14
Adjust text size:
Using a mobile device? Switch to the Mobile Site.

Welcome, guest! Get more out of Delphi Forums by logging in.

New to Delphi Forums? You can log in with your Facebook, Twitter, or Google account or use the New Member Login option and log in with any email address.

Home | Help | Forums | Chat | Blogs | Advertising | Membership Plans
© Delphi Forums LLC All rights reserved. Privacy Policy. Terms of Service.