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Alpha Game 170 From A to Z   Fun and Games

Started 5/11/18 by Jenifer (Zarknorph); 4997791 views.

Round 4..............................

Black Hole (is a region of spacetime where gravity is so strong that nothing – no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light – can escape from it. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass can deform spacetime to form a black hole. The boundary of no escape is called the event horizon. Although it has a great effect on the fate and circumstances of an object crossing it, it has no locally detectable features according to general relativity. In many ways, a black hole acts like an ideal black body, as it reflects no light. Moreover, quantum field theory in curved spacetime predicts that event horizons emit Hawking radiation, with the same spectrum as a black body of a temperature inversely proportional to its mass. This temperature is of the order of billionths of a kelvin for stellar black holes, making it essentially impossible to observe directly. Objects whose gravitational fields are too strong for light to escape were first considered in the 18th century by John Michell and Pierre-Simon Laplace. In 1916, Karl Schwarzschild found the first modern solution of general relativity that would characterize a black hole. David Finkelstein, in 1958, first published the interpretation of "black hole" as a region of space from which nothing can escape. Black holes were long considered a mathematical curiosity; it was not until the 1960s that theoretical work showed they were a generic prediction of general relativity. The discovery of neutron stars by Jocelyn Bell Burnell in 1967 sparked interest in gravitationally collapsed compact objects as a possible astrophysical reality. The first black hole known was Cygnus X-1, identified by several researchers independently in 1971. Black holes of stellar mass form when massive stars collapse at the end of their life cycle. After a black hole has formed, it can grow by absorbing mass from its surroundings. Supermassive black holes of millions of solar masses (M?) may form by absorbing other stars and merging with other black holes. There is consensus that supermassive black holes exist in the centers of most galaxies. The presence of a black hole can be inferred through its interaction with other matter and with electromagnetic radiation such as visible light. Any matter that falls onto a black hole can form an external accretion disk heated by friction, forming quasars, some of the brightest objects in the universe. Stars passing too close to a supermassive black hole can be shredded into streamers that shine very brightly before being "swallowed." If other stars are orbiting a black hole, their orbits can determine the black hole's mass and location. Such observations can be used to exclude possible alternatives such as neutron stars. In this way, astronomers have identified numerous stellar black hole candidates in binary systems and established that the radio source known as Sagittarius A*, at the core of the Milky Way galaxy, contains a supermassive black hole of about 4.3 million solar masses. On 11 February 2016, the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo collaboration announced the first direct detection of gravitational waves, representing the first observation of a black hole merger. On 10 April 2019, the first direct image of a black hole and its vicinity was published, following observations made by the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) in 2017 of the supermassive black hole in Messier 87's galactic center. As of 2021, the nearest known body thought to be a black hole is around 1,500 light-years (460 parsecs) away (see list of nearest black holes). Though only a couple dozen black holes have been found so far in the Milky Way, there are thought to be hundreds of millions, most of which are solitary and do not cause emission of radiation.[16] Therefore, they would only be detectable by gravitational lensing)

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PTG (anotherPTG)

From: PTG (anotherPTG)

Nov-9

Casper the Friendly Ghost Nebula (designated Sh2-136, VdB 141) is a reflection nebula located in the constellation Cepheus.

It lies near the cluster NGC 7023. Looking at the adjacent image, the nebula's name is easily understood. The Ghost Nebula is referred to as a globule (cataloged CB230) and over 2 light-years across. There are several stars embedded, whose emissions make the nebula shine in brownish colour.

The Ghost Nebula should not be confused with the Little Ghost Nebula (NGC 6369), the Ghost Head Nebula (NGC 2080) or the Ghost of Cassiopeia (IC 63).

Sh2136s.jpg

M78 Casper The Friendly Ghost Nebula ( Tblog ) - AstroBin

Deep Impact (was a NASA space probe launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on January 12, 2005. It was designed to study the interior composition of the comet Tempel 1 (9P/Tempel), by releasing an impactor into the comet. At 05:52 UTC on July 4, 2005, the Impactor successfully collided with the comet's nucleus. The impact excavated debris from the interior of the nucleus, forming an impact crater. Photographs taken by the spacecraft showed the comet to be more dusty and less icy than had been expected. The impact generated an unexpectedly large and bright dust cloud, obscuring the view of the impact crater. Previous space missions to comets, such as Giotto, Deep Space 1, and Stardust, were fly-by missions. These missions were able to photograph and examine only the surfaces of cometary nuclei, and even then from considerable distances. The Deep Impact mission was the first to eject material from a comet's surface, and the mission garnered considerable publicity from the media, international scientists, and amateur astronomers alike. Upon the completion of its primary mission, proposals were made to further utilize the spacecraft. Consequently, Deep Impact flew by Earth on December 31, 2007, on its way to an extended mission, designated EPOXI, with a dual purpose to study extrasolar planets and comet Hartley 2 (103P/Hartley). Communication was unexpectedly lost in August 2013 while the craft was heading for another asteroid flyby)

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Calling it a night.........................................

PTG (anotherPTG)

From: PTG (anotherPTG)

Nov-10

The Eagle Nebula (catalogued as Messier 16 or M16, and as NGC 6611) is a young open cluster of stars in the constellation Serpens, discovered by Jean-Philippe de Cheseaux in 1745–46. Both the "Eagle" and the "Star Queen" refer to visual impressions of the dark silhouette near the center of the nebula, an area made famous as the "Pillars of Creation" imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope. The nebula contains several active star-forming gas and dust regions, including the aforementioned Pillars of Creation. The Eagle Nebula lies in the Sagittarius Arm of the Milky Way.

Messier 16 (The Eagle Nebula) | NASA

Eagle Nebula Flaunts Its Infrared Feathers: Infrared Views of M16

Falcon 9 (is a partially reusable medium lift launch vehicle that can carry cargo and crew into Earth orbit, produced by American aerospace company SpaceX. The rocket has two stages. The first (booster) stage carries the second stage and payload to a certain altitude, after which the second stage lifts the payload to its ultimate destination. The rocket evolved through several versions. V1.0 flew from 2010–2013, V1.1 flew from 2013–2016, while V1.2 Full Thrust first launched in 2015, encompassing the Block 5 variant, flying since May 2018. The booster is capable of landing vertically to facilitate reuse. This feat was first achieved on flight 20 in December 2015. Since then, SpaceX has successfully landed boosters over 100 times.[16] Individual boosters have flown as many as fourteen flights. Both stages are powered by SpaceX Merlin engines, using cryogenic liquid oxygen and rocket-grade kerosene (RP-1) as propellants. The heaviest payloads flown to geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) were Intelsat 35e carrying 6,761 kg (14,905 lb), and Telstar 19V with 7,075 kg (15,598 lb). The former was launched into an advantageous super-synchronous transfer orbit, while the latter went into a lower-energy GTO, with an apogee well below the geostationary altitude. Falcon 9 is human-rated for transporting NASA astronauts to the ISS. Falcon 9 is certified for the National Security Space Launch program and NASA Launch Services Program as "Category 3", which can launch the most expensive, important, and complex NASA missions. The first mission launched on 8 October 2012. As of January 2021, Falcon 9 had the most launches among U.S. rockets. It is the only U.S. rocket certified for transporting humans to the International Space Station. It is the only commercial rocket to ever launch humans to orbit. On 24 January 2021, Falcon 9 set a record for the most satellites launched by a single rocket, carrying 143 into orbit)

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Off to work..................................

PTG (anotherPTG)

From: PTG (anotherPTG)

Nov-11

Ganymede, a satellite of Jupiter (Jupiter III), is the largest and most massive of the Solar System's moons. The ninth-largest object (including the Sun) of the Solar System, it is the largest without a substantial atmosphere (albeit not the most massive one, this is Mercury). It has a diameter of 5,268 km (3,273 mi), making it 26 percent larger than the planet Mercury by volume, although it is only 45 percent as massive. Possessing a metallic core, it has the lowest moment of inertia factor of any solid body in the Solar System and is the only moon known to have a magnetic field. Outward from Jupiter, it is the seventh satellite and the third of the Galilean moons, the first group of objects discovered orbiting another planet. Ganymede orbits Jupiter in roughly seven days and is in a 1:2:4 orbital resonance with the moons Europa and Io, respectively.

Ganymede is composed of approximately equal amounts of silicate rock and water. It is a fully differentiated body with an iron-rich, liquid core, and an internal ocean that may contain more water than all of Earth's oceans combined. Its surface is composed of two main types of terrain. Dark regions, saturated with impact craters and dated to four billion years ago, cover about a third of it. Lighter regions, crosscut by extensive grooves and ridges and only slightly less ancient, cover the remainder. The cause of the light terrain's disrupted geology is not fully known, but was likely the result of tectonic activity due to tidal heating

Photograph of Ganymede

Ganymede photographed by Juno in 2021

Hercules Cluster (is a cluster of about 200 galaxies some 500 million light-years distant in the constellation Hercules. It is rich in spiral galaxies and shows many interacting galaxies. The cluster is part of the larger Hercules Supercluster, which is itself part of the much larger Great Wall super-structure. The cluster's brightest member is the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 6041)

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Interacting Galaxies In The Hercules Cluster [720p]

The VLT Survey Telescope (VST) at ESO's Paranal Observatory in Chile has imaged a fascinating collection of interacting galaxies in the Hercules galaxy clust...

not to be confused with..........................

Hercules A (is a bright astronomical radio source within the vicinity of the constellation Hercules corresponding to the galaxy 3C 348)

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both are found in..................

Hercules Constellation (is a constellation named after Hercules, the Roman mythological hero adapted from the Greek hero Heracles. Hercules was one of the 48 constellations listed by the second-century astronomer Ptolemy, and it remains one of the 88 modern constellations today. It is the fifth-largest of the modern constellations and is the largest of the 50 which have no stars brighter than apparent magnitude +2.5)

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Off to work...........................

Msg 368.37088 deleted
PTG (anotherPTG)

From: PTG (anotherPTG)

Nov-12

1566 Icarus  (provisional designation: 1949 MA) is a large near-Earth object of the Apollo group and the lowest numbered potentially hazardous asteroid. It has is an extremely eccentric orbit (0.83) and measures approximately 1.4 km (0.87 mi) in diameter. In 1968, it became the first asteroid ever observed by radar. Its orbit brings it closer to the Sun than Mercury and further out than the orbit of Mars, which also makes it a Mercury-, Venus-, and Mars-crossing asteroid. This stony asteroid and relatively fast rotator with a period of 2.27 hours was discovered on 27 June 1949, by German astronomer Walter Baade at the Palomar Observatory in California. It was named after the mythological Icarus

Icarus Goldstone radar Jun17.jpg

Radar image of Icarus taken by the Goldstone Observatory in June 2015

Jupiter 2 ( was a starship designed and constructed by the United Global Space Force. The ship was engineered to transport a single family - the Robinson Family - in cryosleep to the planet Alpha Prime in the star system Alpha Centauri (though this is not stated in the movie). Their mission would be to travel at slower-than-light speed to Alpha Prime, and once they reached their destination they were to begin construction of a second Hypergate in orbit around their destination planet. Their mission was timed as such that by the time they had reached Alpha Prime, the first Hypergate orbiting Earth would be completed and the two gates would then be connected via hyperspace so as to allow the human species to journey to another planet capable of sustaining life and escape the dying Earth. The Jupiter consisted of an outer launch capsule, the Jupiter 1, and an interstellar starship, the Jupiter 2, equipped with a hydroponics bay, medical bay, and an experimental hyperdrive. The hyperdrive was meant to be used only when the construction of the Hypergates had been completed, otherwise the ship's escape vector would be random. The Jupiter 1 would first lift off via conventional propulsion into orbit from atop a launch tower and, once above the Earth, it would break apart explosively. The Jupiter 2 starship would then ignite its engines and begin its ten year mission to Alpha Prime)

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Calling it a night...................

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